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mysql NSTALL-BAINARY  

2012-04-08 13:41:29|  分类: 数据库 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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2.2. Installing MySQL from Generic Binaries on Unix/Linux


   Oracle provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL. These

   include binary distributions in the form of compressed tar files

   (files with a .tar.gz extension) for a number of platforms, as

   well as binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected

   platforms.


   This section covers the installation of MySQL from a compressed

   tar file binary distribution. For other platform-specific package

   formats, see the other platform-specific sections. For example,

   for Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, "Installing MySQL on

   Microsoft Windows."


   To obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL."


   MySQL compressed tar file binary distributions have names of the

   form mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz, where VERSION is a number (for

   example, 5.6.5), and OS indicates the type of operating system for

   which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or

   winx64).


   To install MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution,

   your system must have GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution

   and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports

   the z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.


   GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some

   operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the

   MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if

   available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is

   available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software

   directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is

   available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

   Warning


   If you have previously installed MySQL using your operating system

   native package management system, such as yum or apt-get, you may

   experience problems installing using a native binary. Make sure

   your previous MySQL previous installation has been removed

   entirely (using your package management system), and that any

   additional files, such as old versions of your data files, have

   also been removed. You should also check the existence of

   configuration files such as /etc/my.cnf or the /etc/mysql

   directory have been deleted.


   If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use

   the instructions in Section 1.7, "How to Report Bugs or Problems."


   On Unix, to install a compressed tar file binary distribution,

   unpack it at the installation location you choose (typically

   /usr/local/mysql). This creates the directories shown in the

   following table.


   Table 2.2. MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary

   Package

   Directory Contents of Directory

   bin Client programs and the mysqld server

   data Log files, databases

   docs Manual in Info format

   man Unix manual pages

   include Include (header) files

   lib Libraries

   scripts mysql_install_db

   share Miscellaneous support files, including error messages,

   sample configuration files, SQL for database installation

   sql-bench Benchmarks


   Debug versions of the mysqld binary are available as mysqld-debug.

   To compile your own debug version of MySQL from a source

   distribution, use the appropriate configuration options to enable

   debugging support. For more information on compiling from source,

   see Section 2.9, "Installing MySQL from Source."


   To install and use a MySQL binary distribution, the basic command

   sequence looks like this:

shell> groupadd mysql

shell> useradd -r -g mysql mysql

shell> cd /usr/local

shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz

shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql

shell> cd mysql

shell> chown -R mysql .

shell> chgrp -R mysql .

shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

shell> chown -R root .

shell> chown -R mysql data

# Next command is optional

shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

# Next command is optional

shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server


   A more detailed version of the preceding description for

   installing a binary distribution follows.

   Note


   This procedure assumes that you have root (administrator) access

   to your system. Alternatively, you can prefix each command using

   the sudo (Linux) or pfexec (OpenSolaris) command.


   The procedure does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts.

   After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.10,

   "Postinstallation Setup and Testing."


Create a mysql User and Group


   If your system does not already have a user and group for mysqld

   to run as, you may need to create one. The following commands add

   the mysql group and the mysql user. You might want to call the

   user and group something else instead of mysql. If so, substitute

   the appropriate name in the following instructions. The syntax for

   useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of

   Unix, or they may have different names such as adduser and

   addgroup.

shell> groupadd mysql

shell> useradd -r -g mysql mysql


   Note


   Because the user is required only for ownership purposes, not

   login purposes, the useradd command uses the -r option to create a

   user that does not have login permissions to your server host.

   Omit this option to permit logins for the user (or if your useradd

   does not support the option).


Obtain and Unpack the Distribution


   Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution

   and change location into it. The example here unpacks the

   distribution under /usr/local. The instructions, therefore, assume

   that you have permission to create files and directories in

   /usr/local. If that directory is protected, you must perform the

   installation as root.

shell> cd /usr/local


   Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section

   2.1.3, "How to Get MySQL." For a given release, binary

   distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL

   source distribution.


   Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation directory.

   Then create a symbolic link to that directory. tar can uncompress

   and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz

shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql


   The tar command creates a directory named mysql-VERSION-OS. The ln

   command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This enables you

   to refer more easily to the installation directory as

   /usr/local/mysql.


   If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to unpack

   the distribution and tar to unpack it. Replace the preceding tar

   command with the following alternative command to uncompress and

   extract the distribution:

shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -


Perform Postinstallation Setup


   The remainder of the installation process involves setting up the

   configuration file, creating the core databases, and starting the

   MySQL server. For instructions, see Section 2.10,

   "Postinstallation Setup and Testing."

   Note


   The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially

   have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up

   passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10,

   "Postinstallation Setup and Testing."


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